European Union Special Representative

The European Union Special Representatives (EUSR) are emissaries of the European Union with specific tasks abroad. While the EU's ambassadors are responsible for affairs with a single country, Special Representatives tackle specific issues, conflict areas or regions of countries. They answer directly to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently Josep Borrell.

Current SRs by region

Europe

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Peter Sørensen took over the position of EUSR in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a mandate from 1 September 2011 until 30 June 2015.[1] His post was de-coupled from the one of High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (which remained in the hands of Valentin Inzko), aiming at fostering the EU pre-accession strategy for Bosnia and Herzegovina.[2] However, in November 2014, Sørensen became Head of the EU Delegation in Geneva, leaving the EUSR BiH post vacant.[3] Lars-Gunnar Wigemark was appointed as the EUSR in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1 March 2015 until 31 October 2015.[4] His mandate was extended until 30 June 2018[5] and again until 31 August 2019.[6] Johann Sattler replaced him in 2019, with a mandate from 1 September 2019 to 31 August 2023.[7]

Kosovo

Tomáš Szunyog was appointed as Special Representative in Kosovo on 30 July 2020.[8] His mandate runs from 1 September 2020 until 31 August 2023.[9]

South Caucasus and Georgia

Toivo Klaar was appointed Special Representative for the South Caucasus and the crisis in Georgia on 13 November 2017. His mandate was extended until 29 February 2020,[10] and again until 28 February 2021.[11] His mandate was again extended until 28 February 2022,[12] and then again until 31 August 2022,[13] and then again until 31 August 2023.[14]

Belgrade-Pristina Dialogue and other Western Balkan regional issues

On 3 April 2020, Miroslav Lajčák was appointed by the EU Council as Special Representative for the Belgrade-Pristina Dialogue and other Western Balkan regional issues. His 12-month mandate includes the tasks to achieve comprehensive normalisation of the relations between Serbia and Kosovo, improve good neighbourly relations and reconciliation between partners in the Western Balkans, helping them overcome the legacy of the past, and contribute to the consistency and effectiveness of EU action in the Western Balkans.[15] His mandate runs from 2 April 2020 until 31 August 2022.[16] His mandate was renewed until 31 August 2024.[17]

Asia

Central Asia

Terhi Hakala is the Special Representative for Central Asia.[18] Her mandate is to promote good relations between the EU and central Asian countries and to strengthen stability, cooperation, democracy and respect for human rights in the region. In particular, the EU Special Representative will co-ordinate EU action in central Asia and oversee the implementation of the EU Strategy for central Asia. Her mandate runs from 1 July 2021 to 28 February 2023.

Middle East

Sven Koopmans has been appointed Special Representative for the Middle East peace process. His mandate runs from 1 May 2021 until 28 February 2023.[19] Between 2017 and 2021 "he was a Member of Parliament in the Netherlands, where he was spokesperson on foreign affairs and head of delegation in the NATO Parliamentary Assembly."[20] The mandate of the Special Representative is based on the EU's policy objectives regarding the Middle East peace process, which include a two-State solution with Israel and a democratic, contiguous, viable, peaceful and sovereign Palestinian State living side by side within secure and recognised borders enjoying normal relations with their neighbours in accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions 242, 338, 1397 and 1402 and the principles of the Madrid Conference.

Africa

Horn of Africa (incl. the region of Sudan)

Annette Weber was appointed Special Representative for the Horn of Africa on 1 July 2021.[21] Her mandate runs until 31 August 2022.[22] Her mandate was extended until 31 August 2024.[23]

Sahel

Emanuela Del Re was appointed as the Special Representative for the Sahel on 21 June 2021.[24] Her mandate runs from 1 July 2021 until 31 August 2022.[25] Her mandate was renewed until 31 August 2024.[26]

Global

Human Rights

A long-standing request[27] for a representative that would be in charge of enhancing the effectiveness and visibility of EU's human rights policy, based on the Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy (officially adopted on 25 June 2012),[28] led to the creation of the post of the Special Representative of the European Union for Human Rights. The post, which is providing a strong, independent, flexible and sufficiently broad mandate, is aiming to cover fields such as the strengthening of democracy, International justice, humanitarian law and the abolition of the death penalty .

On 19 February 2019, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini nominated Eamon Gilmore to be European Union Special Representative for Human Rights. His nomination was approved by the Foreign Affairs Council on 20 February 2019. His mandate runs from 1 March 2019 until 28 February 2023.[29]

Previous SRs

The table below is based on official sources provided by the EU.[30][31]

Scope Representative(s) Term(s)
Afghanistan Klaus Peter Klaiber 10 December 2001 – 30 June 2002
Francesc Vendrell 1 July 2002 – 31 August 2008
Ettore Francesco Sequi (also for Pakistan from 15 June 2009) 1 September 2008 – 31 March 2010
Vygaudas Ušackas 1 April 2010 – 31 August 2013
Franz-Michael Skjold Mellbin 1 September 2013 – 31 August 2017
African Great Lakes Region Aldo Ajello (initially as Special Envoy) 25 March 1996 – 28 February 2007
Roeland van de Geer 1 March 2007 – 31 August 2011
African Union Koen Vervaeke 6 December 2007 – 31 October 2011
Gary Quince (remains head of the EU Delegation to the AU) 1 November 2011 – 30 June 2014
Bosnia and Herzegovina Lord Ashdown (also High Representative) 3 June 2002 – 31 January 2006
Christian Schwarz-Schilling (also High Representative) 1 February 2006 – 30 June 2007
Miroslav Lajčák (also High Representative) 1 July 2007 – 28 February 2009
Valentin Inzko (also High Representative) 1 March 2009 – 31 August 2011
Peter Sørensen (also EU Ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1 September 2011 – 31 October 2014
Lars-Gunnar Wigemark (also EU Ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1 March 2015 – 31 August 2019
Johann Sattler (also EU Ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1 September 2019 – present
Central Asia Ján Kubiš 28 July 2005 – 5 July 2006
Pierre Morel 5 October 2006 – 30 June 2012
Patricia Flor 1 July 2012 – 30 June 2014
Peter Burian 15 April 2015 – 30 June 2021
Georgia crisis Pierre Morel 25 September 2008 – 31 August 2011
Horn of Africa Alexander Rondos 1 January 2012 – 30 June 2021
Human rights (worldwide) Stavros Lambrinidis 1 September 2012 – 28 February 2019
Kosovo Wolfgang Petritsch (Special Envoy) 5 October 1998 – 29 July 1999
Pieter Feith 4 February 2008 – 30 April 2011
Fernando Gentilini 1 May 2011 – 31 January 2012
Samuel Žbogar 1 February 2012 – 31 August 2016
Nataliya Apostolova 1 September 2016[32][33][34] – 31 August 2020[35]
Republic of Macedonia François Léotard 29 June 2001 – 29 October 2001
Alain Le Roy 29 October 2001 – 28 February 2002
Alexis Brouhns 30 September 2002 – 31 December 2003
Søren Jessen-Petersen 26 January 2004 – 30 June 2004
Michael Sahlin 12 July 2004 – 31 August 2005
Erwan Fouéré 17 October 2005 – 31 August 2011
Middle East peace process Miguel Ángel Moratinos 25 November 1996 – 31 May 2002
Marc Otte 14 July 2003 – 28 February 2011
Andreas Reinicke 1 February 2012 – 31 December 2013
Fernando Gentilini 15 April 2015 – 30 June 2018
Susanna Terstal 18 September 2018 – 30 April 2021
Moldova Adriaan Jacobovits de Szeged 23 March 2005 – 28 February 2007
Kálmán Mizsei 1 March 2007 – 28 February 2011
Sahel fr:Michel Reveyrand-de Menthon 18 March 2013 – 31 October 2015
es:Ángel Losada Fernández 1 November 2015 – 30 June 2021
South Caucasus Heikki Talvitie 1 July 2003 – 28 February 2006
Peter Semneby 1 March 2006 – 28 February 2011
Philippe Lefort (also for Georgia crisis) 1 September 2011 – 30 June 2014
Herbert Salber (also for Georgia crisis) 1 July 2014 – 15 August 2017
Royaumont Process Panagiotis Roumeliotis
(was already also the coordinator of the process of stability and good-neighbourly relations in South-east Europe (the Royaumont Process))
31 May 1999 – 31 May 2000
Southern Mediterranean Bernardino León 18 July 2011 – 30 June 2014
(Special) Coordinator of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe Bodo Hombach 2 July 1999 – 31 December 2001
Erhard Busek 1 January 2002 – 30 June 2008
Sudan Pekka Haavisto 18 July 2005 – 30 April 2007
Torben Brylle 1 May 2007 – 31 August 2010
Rosalind Marsden (also for South Sudan since 1 August 2011) 1 September 2010 – 31 October 2013
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Felipe González 8 June 1998 – 11 October 1999

References

  1. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:188:0030:0033:en:PDF[bare URL]
  2. ^ BH News Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints six new Heads of EU Delegation to Japan, UN Geneva, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mozambique, and the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu." EEAS press release. Retrieved 2014-12-04
  4. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2015/970 of 22 June 2015 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 23 June 2015, retrieved 19 June 2019
  5. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2017/380 of 3 March 2017 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative for the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP), 4 March 2017, retrieved 19 June 2019
  6. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/908 of 25 June 2018 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 26 June 2018, retrieved 19 June 2019
  7. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D1193&qid=1627692578602. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ Kosovo: Tomáš Szunyog appointed as new EU Special Representative Council of the European Union, press release of 30 July 2020.
  9. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D1194&qid=1627692578602[bare URL]
  10. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/907 of 25 June 2018 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative for the South Caucasus and the crisis in Georgia, 26 June 2018, retrieved 19 June 2019
  11. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1587240623393&uri=CELEX:32020D0254[bare URL]
  12. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32021D0285&qid=1627692578602&from=EN[bare URL PDF]
  13. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32022D0251&qid=1654208751418[bare URL]
  14. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32022D1237&qid=1662320134028[bare URL]
  15. ^ EU Council, 3 April 2020
  16. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32021D0470&from=EN[bare URL PDF]
  17. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32022D1240&qid=1662320314309[bare URL]
  18. ^ Council appoints three new EU special representatives for the Sahel, Central Asia and the Horn of Africa Council of the European Union, press release of 21 June 2021.
  19. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D0710&qid=1627692578602[bare URL]
  20. ^ "New EU Special Representative for the Middle East Peace Process appointed". EU. 29 April 2021.
  21. ^ Council appoints three new EU special representatives for the Sahel, Central Asia and the Horn of Africa Council of the European Union, press release of 21 June 2021.
  22. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D1012&qid=1627692578602[bare URL]
  23. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32022D1238&qid=1662320614078[bare URL]
  24. ^ Council appoints three new EU special representatives for the Sahel, Central Asia and the Horn of Africa Council of the European Union, press release of 21 June 2021.
  25. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D1011&qid=1627692578602[bare URL]
  26. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32022D1239&qid=1662320445524[bare URL]
  27. ^ theparliament.com https://web.archive.org/web/20120730004406/http://www.theparliament.com/latest-news/article/newsarticle/former-mep-chosen-as-eus-new-human-rights-envoy. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ "EU appoints Human Rights chief". 26 July 2012.
  29. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32021D0284&qid=1627692578602[bare URL]
  30. ^ "About the European External Action Service (EEAS) – EEAS – European External Action Service – European Commission". EEAS – European External Action Service.
  31. ^ "EUR-Lex – Access to European Union law – choose your language". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  32. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2016/1338 of 4 August 2016 amending Decision (CFSP) 2015/2052 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Kosovo (This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.), 5 August 2016, retrieved 19 June 2019
  33. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2017/348 of 27 February 2017 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Kosovo (This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244(1999) and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence. ), 28 February 2017, retrieved 19 June 2019
  34. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/903 of 25 June 2018 extending the mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Kosovo (This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.), 26 June 2018, retrieved 19 June 2019
  35. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1587240456016&uri=CELEX:32020D0249[bare URL]

External links

  • Official list of EU Special Representatives
  • Official list of current EU Special Representatives
  • Official list of former EU Special Representatives
  • Exploring EU Foreign Policy, the EUSR, Leuven Catholic University
  • Giovanni Grevi, The EU Special Representatives, Chaillot Paper nb. 106, Institute for Security Studies of the European Union, Paris, 2007
  • Cornelius Adebahr, Working inside out: what role for Special Envoys in the European External Action Service?, EPC Policy Brief, January 2011
  • Dominik Tolksdorf, The Role of EU Special Representatives in the post-Lisbon foreign policy system: A renaissance?, IES Policy Brief, Brussels, June 2012
  • v
  • t
  • e
Bilateral relations
Africa
Insignia of the European External Action Service.svg
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Former
General
  • †= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union members.
Multilateral relations and initiatives
Organisations
Initiatives
Administration and policies
Foreign and Security Policy
Administration
Funding
  • v
  • t
  • e
Leadership
European Union
Arms of CEUMC
Structure
External Action Service
Agencies
Council preparatory bodies
European Commission bodies
Policies
Other
Equipment
Decorations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Multinational
Union level
Battlegroups
Other
Provided through
TEU Article 42.3
  • v
  • t
  • e
Military operations
[Ground] force (EUFOR)
Naval force (EUNAVFOR)
Military missions
Training mission (EUTM)
Civilian missions
Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
Rule of law mission (EULEX)
Monitoring mission (EUMM)
Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
  • RCA (2015–2016)
Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
  • South Sudan (2013–2014)
Mission in support of the
security sector reform (EUSSR)
  • Guinea-Bissau (2008–2010)
Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
  • Iraq (2015–2013)
  • Georgia (2004–2005)
Mission to provide advice and assistance
for security sector reform (EUSEC)
  • RD Congo (2005–2016)
Advisory mission (EUAM)
  • Ukraine (2014–present)
  • Iraq (2017–present)
Police advisory team (EUPAT)
  • FYROM (2005–2006)
Other
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action (2005–2007)
  • PAMECA (2002–present)
  • Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987–1988)
  • Police and customs operation with OSCE on the Danube (1993–1996)
  • Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994–1996)
  • Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania (MAPE, 1997–2001)
  • Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia (WEUDAM, 1999–2001)
  • General security surveillance mission in Kosovo (1998–1999)
1: Conducted by the Western European Union prior to 2003. These missions were not named using conventional prefixes such as EUFOR, EUNAVFOR etc.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western Union (1948–1951/1954) Flag of the Western Union.svg
European Defence Community (plan that failed in 1954)
Western European Union (1954–2011) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg Flag of the Western European Union.svg
European Union (1992–present) Flag of Europe.svg
Period before the union had defence structures (1993–1999)
European Security and Defence Policy (1999–2009)
Common Security and Defence Policy (2009–present)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Militaries of the European Union
Austrian Armed Forces


Map of Southeast Asia
Belgian Armed Forces
Bulgarian Armed Forces
Armed Forces of Croatia
Cypriot National Guard
Army of the Czech Republic
Danish Defence
Estonian Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
French Armed Forces
Bundeswehr
Hellenic Armed Forces
Hungarian Defence Forces
Irish Defence Forces
Italian Armed Forces
Latvian National Armed Forces
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Luxembourg Army
Armed Forces of Malta
Netherlands Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
Portuguese Armed Forces
Romanian Armed Forces
Slovak Armed Forces
Slovenian Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
EU member states
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France
Germany Germany
Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands
Poland Poland
Portugal Portugal
Romania Romania
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain
Sweden Sweden
European Union portal · War portal