Visa policy of the Schengen Area

Policy on permits required to enter the Schengen Area

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  • Visa policy of the Schengen Area

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The visa policy of the Schengen Area is an element within the wider area of freedom, security and justice policy of the European Union. It applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states except Ireland.[1] The visa policy allows nationals of certain countries to enter the Schengen Area via air, land or sea without a visa for stays of up to 90 days within a 180-day period. Nationals of certain other countries are required to have a visa either upon arrival or in transit.

The Schengen Area consists of 22 EU member states and four non-EU countries that are members of EFTA: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, while EU members, are not yet part of the Schengen Area but, nonetheless, have a visa policy that is partially based on the Schengen acquis.[2]

Ireland has opted out of the Schengen Agreement and instead operates its own visa policy, as do certain overseas territories of Schengen member states.

Nationals of EU single market countries are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. Their right to freedom of movement in each other's countries can, however, be limited in a reserved number of situations, as prescribed by EU treaties.

Visa exemptions

  Schengen Area
  Other EU members and territories of Schengen countries outside the Schengen Area (freedom of movement in the Schengen Area)
  Visa not required for short stays in the Schengen Area, usually 90 days in any 180-day period (EU 2018/1806 Annex II)
  Visa required to enter the Schengen Area, and to transit some Schengen countries in some cases (EU 2018/1806 Annex I)
  Visa required to enter or transit any Schengen country (EC 810/2009 Annex IV)

Freedom of movement

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  •  European Union citizens
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Rules for freedom of movement
Directive 2004/38/EC defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.[3][4][5] Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU. Freedom of movement between Switzerland and the other EFTA countries happens in accordance with the EFTA convention.[6] All of these countries comprise the EU single market.

Nationals of all EU single market states holding a valid passport, passport card, or national identity card can enter, reside and work in each other's territory without a visa. If they are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.[7][8]

However, EU single market states can refuse entry to any EU single market national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[9] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where entry is sought (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel the person on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel the person on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[10] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's date of arrival in the member state where entry is sought.[11]

Nationals of 'Annex II' countries and territories (visa waiver countries)

Since 2001, the European Union has issued a list of countries whose nationals need visas (Annex I) and a list of those who do not (Annex II).[12] The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, even though the four countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.[13][14][15][16]

Nationals of the following countries and territories holding ordinary passports may enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa, for short stays (usually 90 days within a 180-day period):[17][a]

  •  Albania
  •  Andorra
  •  Antigua and Barbuda
  •  Argentina
  •  Australia
  •  Bahamas
  •  Barbados
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  •  Brazil
  •  Brunei
  •  Canada
  •  Chile
  •  Colombia
  •  Costa Rica
  •  Dominica
  •  El Salvador
  •  Georgia
  •  Grenada
  •  Guatemala
  •  Honduras
  •  Hong Kong
  •  Israel
  •  Japan
  •  Kiribati
  •  Macau
  •  Malaysia
  •  Marshall Islands
  •  Mauritius
  •  Mexico
  •  Micronesia
  •  Moldova
  •  Monaco
  •  Montenegro
  •  New Zealand
  •  Nicaragua
  •  North Macedonia
  •  Palau
  •  Panama
  •  Paraguay
  •  Peru
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  •  Saint Lucia
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  •  Samoa
  •  San Marino
  •  Serbia
  •  Seychelles
  •  Singapore
  •  Solomon Islands
  •  South Korea
  •  Taiwan
  •  Timor Leste
  •  Tonga
  •  Trinidad and Tobago
  •  Tuvalu
  •  Ukraine
  •  United Arab Emirates
  •  United Kingdom[b]
  •  United States
  •  Uruguay
  •   Vatican City
  •  Venezuela
Date of visa changes
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2017)
  • Nationals of following countries, which are now part of the European Union or the Schengen Area, have never needed a visa to the Schengen Area: Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland
  • Nationals of following countries have also never needed a visa to the Schengen Area: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, San Marino, Singapore, South Korea, United Kingdom,[c] United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela[22]
  • 10 April 2001: Bulgaria, Hong Kong, Macau[23]
  • 1 January 2002: Romania[23][24]
  • 19 January 2007: British Nationals (Overseas)[25]
  • 28 May 2009: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas (resumed), Barbados, Mauritius, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Seychelles
  • 19 December 2009: Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia), Montenegro, Serbia
  • 15 December 2010: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 22 December 2010: Taiwan
  • 28 April 2014: Moldova
  • 15 May 2014: All British nationals
  • 6 May 2015: United Arab Emirates[26]
  • 26 May 2015: Timor-Leste[27]
  • 28 May 2015: Dominica, Grenada, Samoa, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago[27]
  • 20 November 2015: Tonga[28]
  • 3 December 2015: Colombia[28] (resumed)
  • 7 December 2015: Palau[28]
  • 15 March 2016: Peru[29]
  • 24 June 2016: Kiribati[30]
  • 28 June 2016: Marshall Islands[30]
  • 1 July 2016: Tuvalu[30]
  • 20 September 2016: Micronesia[30]
  • 7 October 2016: Solomon Islands[30]
  • 28 March 2017: Georgia
  • 11 June 2017: Ukraine

Cancelled:

  • Bahamas (was resumed in 2009), Belize, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi: 1999[31][32]
  • Colombia: 2001 (was resumed in 2015)
  • Ecuador: 1 June 2003[33]
  • Bolivia: 1 April 2007[34]
  • Vanuatu: 4 May 2022[a]
Rules for Annex II nationals
To be able to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, the above Annex II nationals are required to:
  • have a travel document which is valid for at least 3 months after the intended date of departure and which has been issued in the previous 10 years;
  • have sufficient funds for their stay and onward/return journey;
  • justify the purpose and conditions of their stay;
  • not be listed in the Schengen Information System as someone to be refused entry and not be considered as a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any Schengen country.[35][36]

The above Annex II nationals can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period (which entails considering the 180-day period preceding each day of stay).[37] This does not apply to the nationals of certain countries that have concluded visa waiver agreements with the EU – Barbados, Brazil, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Mauritius, and Seychelles, with respect to which an older definition of 3 months during a 6-month period following the date of first entry continues to apply.[38][39][40] Any time spent by an Annex II national in the Schengen Area on a long-stay visa or a residence permit does not count towards the visa exemption period limit of 90 days.[37]

Australian and New Zealand citizens enjoy a more liberal visa policy, with both governments having signed bilateral visa agreements with individual Schengen countries. Australian citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states.[41] New Zealand citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (as well as Hungary if visiting it as the final Schengen destination) without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180-day period time limit applies.

In addition, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Israeli, Malaysian, South Korean and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra 3 months per 6-month period visa-free in the Czech Republic,[50] regardless of time spent in other Schengen countries. Further, the old method of calculating the length of the visa-free stay (i.e. 3 months within 6 months instead of 90 days in any 180-day period) still applies to nationals of Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay in the Czech Republic.

Similarly, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Canadian, Chilean, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Singaporean, South Korean and United States nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Denmark.[51]

In addition to the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Australian, Brazilian, Bruneian, Canadian, Chilean, Costa Rican, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Paraguayan, Singaporean, South Korean, United States, Uruguayan and Venezuelan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Norway.[52][53]

Yet further, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Singaporean, South Korean, United States and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Poland.[54][55]

All Annex II nationals can also enter Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day period in each of these countries. The visa-free time restrictions for each of these countries is calculated separately (as well as being separate to the Schengen Area visa-free time restriction).

Although all Annex II nationals can enter Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania visa-free for pleasure or for business, individual countries can decide to impose a visa requirement on those who wish to enter to work (i.e. to carry out a 'paid activity'). The table at the end of the article indicates which individual countries permit Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay.

Visa waiver access for Annex II nationals of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine applies only to holders of biometric passports. Visa waiver access does not apply to holders of passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate, which issues Serbian passports in Kosovo.

Visa waiver for New Zealand nationals also applies to Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans as they also use New Zealand passports.

Visa waiver for Taiwan applies only to holders of Taiwanese passports with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[56][57] The visa waivers granted by the European Union and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, "Taiwan" is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state".[58][59] Individual member state labels may differ, for example it is listed by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei",[60] and at one point by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China",[61] although Romania later adjusted it classification to reflect the EU designation.[62]

Rules regarding paid activity during visa-free stay
According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries permit certain nationals to work during their visa-free stay:[63]
  • Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Sweden: none
  • Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia: all visa-free nationals
  • Finland, Norway: all visa-free nationals, with a work permit
  • France: all visa-free nationals, except of Australia, Brazil, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, United States and Venezuela
  • Greece: all visa-free nationals not working as intellectual creators
  • Spain: nationals of Andorra not working in an independent profession
  • Switzerland: nationals of Andorra, Australia, Brunei, Japan, Malaysia, Monaco, New Zealand, San Marino, Singapore, United Kingdom and Vatican City

Residents and holders of visas of Schengen states

Holders of a long-stay visa or residence permit issued by a Schengen state or Monaco may also travel to other Schengen states, without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period.[64][65][66] Short-stay visas issued by a Schengen state are also valid for all other Schengen states unless marked otherwise.[64]

Holders of a visa (even if limited to a specific country) or residence permit issued by a Schengen state, Monaco, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania may also travel to Bulgaria,[13] Croatia,[14] Cyprus and Romania[16] without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period (except nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus, who still need a Cypriot visa).[15] However, visas and residence permits issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.[67]

Family members of EU single market nationals

Individuals of any nationality who are family members of EU single market nationals and are in possession of a residence card indicating their status are exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the EU single market when they are accompanying their EU single market family member or are seeking to join them.[68]

Rules for family members of EU single market nationals
An individual can enter and stay in each Schengen member state for up to 90 days without a visa if he/she:[69][70]
  • holds a valid travel document, and
  • possesses a residence card indicating that the person is a family member of an EU single market national.

Holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by a Schengen member state can travel to another Schengen member state without a visa, regardless of whether they are travelling independently, or accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member. However, holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Ireland can travel to the Schengen Area without a visa only if they are accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member.[71]

A family member of an EU single market national satisfying the above conditions can also enter Bulgaria,[72] Croatia, Cyprus[73] and Romania[74] and stay for up to 90 days in each country.

In theory, a family member of an EU single market national who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance, and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border checkpoint of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania by presenting evidence of the familial relationship.[69]

School pupils resident in the EU single market or Annex II countries and territories

Rules for school pupils resident in the EU single market
A school pupil who is not an EU single market national, but who legally resides in the EU single market, can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a short stay or transit if:[75]
  • he or she is travelling as a member of a group of school pupils from a general education school, and
  • the group is accompanied by a teacher from the school, and
  • the teacher can present a 'List of Travellers' form identifying the pupils on the trip, the purpose and circumstances of the intended stay/transit.

Even though a school pupil fulfilling all of the above conditions is exempt from having to obtain a visa to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, he or she is nonetheless required to have a valid travel document. However, he or she is exempt from having to carry a valid travel document if:

  • a photograph of him or her is included in the 'List of Travellers' form, and
  • the responsible authority in the member state where he/she resides endorses the 'List of Travellers' form to confirm his or her residence status and his or her right to re-entry.
Rules for school pupils resident in Annex II countries and territories
School pupils travelling in the context of a school excursion as members of a group of school pupils accompanied by a teacher from the school in question who reside in an Annex II country/territory, but hold the nationality of an Annex I country/territory, are granted visa-free entry to Cyprus (a national collective visa is required), Germany, Malta, Poland and Slovakia. In addition, those who reside in the United Kingdom are also granted visa-free entry to Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.[63]

School pupils (of any nationality and resident in any country) who require a visa for the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania and who are visiting for the purpose of study and/or educational training are waived the visa application fee (but are still required to submit the relevant supporting documents).[76]

Refugees and stateless people resident in Ireland or Annex II countries and territories

Rules for refugees and stateless people
According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries grant visa-free entry to refugees or stateless people who reside in Ireland or in an Annex II country/territory:[63]
  • Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Latvia: none
  • Belgium: refugees in Ireland, United States
  • Bulgaria, Germany: Ireland, all Annex II
  • Croatia: Andorra, Canada, Ireland, Japan, Monaco, San Marino, Taiwan, United Kingdom, United States, Vatican City
  • Czech Republic, Poland: refugees in Ireland
  • Denmark, France, Portugal, Romania, Sweden: Ireland
  • Finland, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway, Switzerland: Ireland, United Kingdom
  • Hungary: all Annex II except Taiwan; refugees in Ireland
  • Iceland: Ireland, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan
  • Italy: Ireland, all Annex II except Taiwan
  • Luxembourg, Netherlands: United Kingdom; refugees in Ireland, United States
  • Malta: Taiwan; refugees in Ireland
  • Slovakia: Hong Kong, Macau; refugees in Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Singapore, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela
  • Slovenia: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Macau, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Peru, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela
  • Spain: Taiwan; refugees in Ireland; stateless people in United Arab Emirates

Holders of local border traffic permits

Currently the local border traffic regulation agreements exist with Belarus (with Latvia since 2011), Moldova (with Romania since 2010), Russia (with Norway since 2012,[77] with Latvia since 2013 and Poland 2012-20161) and Ukraine (with Hungary and Slovakia since 2008, Poland since 2009 and Romania since 2015). Agreement between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is pending ratification but is applied on provisional basis.[78]

  1. ^ Poland has suspended the border traffic agreements with Russia indefinitely from 4 July 2016.[79][80]
Rules for the holders of local border traffic permits
Schengen countries are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries to introduce a local border traffic permit scheme.[81] Such permits are a type of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the holder's name and photo, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. The validity of the permit can be up to five years.

Holders of local border traffic permits are able to spend up to 3 months every time they enter the border area of the Schengen country which has issued the permit (this time limit is far more generous than the '90 days in a 180-day period' normally granted to third-country nationals visiting the Schengen Area).[82]

A local border traffic permit scheme has been implemented in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia for Ukrainian nationals, is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad area), and has also been implemented in a 30 km border zone between Norway and Russia in 2012. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.

There is also a tendency to allow more and more one-year multiple-entry visas to Russians – especially by Finland. There are plans in the EU to allow up to 5 years validity on multiple-entry visas for Russians, partly to relieve the work load at embassies.[citation needed]

Holders of non-ordinary passports

There are no common visa lists for holders of diplomatic, service and other official passports. States may still maintain different policies on these.[63]

Visa waivers maintained exclusively for diplomatic, official and service passports[63][83][84][85]

Holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of Annex II countries (listed above) do not need a visa, except for:

  • Bulgaria: Australia, Costa Rica, United States
  • France, Greece, Spain: United States

In addition, holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of the following countries do not need a visa for:

  • Austria: Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belarus (biometric only), Belize, China, Order of Malta
  • Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Ecuador, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Morocco, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), Chad, China, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Senegal
  • Bulgaria: Azerbaijan, Cape Verde, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Morocco, North Korea, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belarus (biometric only), Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar
  • Croatia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Morocco, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam; and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Belarus (biometric only), Fiji, Jordan, Kuwait
  • Cyprus: Armenia, Cape Verde, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria; and only diplomatic passports of Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only)
  • Czech Republic: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Egypt, Indonesia, Laos, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, Ecuador, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mongolia, Order of Malta, Tunisia, Vietnam
  • Denmark: Bolivia, Egypt, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of China, Kazakhstan, Tunisia
  • Estonia: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Morocco, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), Belize, China, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia (biometric only), Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam
  • Finland: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, India, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Tunisia
  • France: Algeria, Angola, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Morocco, Oman, Philippines, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus (biometric only), Belize, Benin, China, Congo (secured only), India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Thailand, Vietnam
  • Germany: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Chad, Ecuador, Ghana, Oman (biometric only), Philippines, Qatar (biometric only), Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, Gabon (biometric only), India, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kuwait (biometric only), Malawi, Mongolia (biometric only), Morocco, Namibia, Pakistan, South Africa, Tunisia
  • Greece: Algeria, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Egypt, Indonesia,[86] Kuwait, Mongolia, Morocco, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, Zimbabwe; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, India, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Vietnam
  • Hungary: Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus (biometric only), Belize, Cambodia, Cape Verde, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Oman, Philippines, South Africa, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam; and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Egypt, Eswatini, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Uzbekistan, Yemen
  • Iceland: India, Pakistan, South Africa, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of China
  • Italy: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eswatini, Gambia, Guyana, Indonesia, Lesotho, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Order of Malta, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Bahrain, Belarus (biometric only), China, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Mozambique, Senegal, Vietnam
  • Latvia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cape Verde, Kuwait, Mongolia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Belarus (biometric only), China, India, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
  • Lithuania: Azerbaijan, Cape Verde, China, Indonesia, Mongolia, Oman, Philippines, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belarus (biometric only), Egypt, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Vietnam
  • Malta: Algeria, Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Ghana, Mongolia, Order of Malta, Pakistan, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus (biometric only), Belize, Cambodia, Cuba, Ecuador, Eswatini, Gambia, Guinea, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia
  • Norway: Bolivia, Indonesia, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Laos, Tunisia
  • Poland: Algeria, Benin, Cape Verde, China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Order of Malta, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Qatar, Uzbekistan, Vietnam
  • Portugal: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, São Tomé and Príncipe, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belarus (biometric only), China, Congo, India, Kazakhstan, Qatar, Senegal
  • Romania: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), Bolivia, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, China, Congo, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam, Zambia; and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Palestine, Uzbekistan
  • Slovakia: Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), Bolivia, Cambodia, Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Cuba, Kyrgyzstan, Vietnam
  • Slovenia: Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, China, Cuba, Egypt, Indonesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Order of Malta, Philippines, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belarus (biometric only), Ecuador, India, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Maldives
  • Spain: Algeria, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Ecuador, Egypt, Morocco, Order of Malta, Philippines, Tunisia, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, Dominican Republic, Guyana, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mauritania, Qatar, Senegal, South Africa, Thailand, Vietnam
  • Sweden: Bolivia, Cape Verde, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (biometric only), China, India, Morocco, Tunisia
  • Switzerland, Liechtenstein: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan (biometric only), Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kuwait, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey; and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Tunisia, Vietnam

Airport transit

In general, a passenger who transits through one single airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside in the international transit area less than one day will not require a visa (transit privilege). This only applies if the transfer is possible without leaving the international transit area, which depends on the connecting flight and airport layout.[87]

However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union.[88] Nationals of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:[89]

  •  Eritrea
  •  Ethiopia
  •  Ghana
  •  Iran
  •  Iraq
  •  Nigeria
  •  Pakistan
  •  Somalia
  •  Sri Lanka

However, nationals of the above countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they hold a visa or residence permit issued by an EU single market country, Andorra, Canada, Japan, Monaco, San Marino or the United States, are family members of an EU single market national, hold a diplomatic passport, or are flight crew members.[90]

Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants.[91] For example, nationals of Syria need ATVs for many but not all Schengen countries.

Additional nationalities (with ordinary passports) required to have an ATV in some Schengen countries[92][93][94][95][96]
  • Austria: Syria
  • Belgium: Dominican Republic, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Nepal, Palestine, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Yemen
  • Cyprus: Turkey
  • Czech Republic: Algeria, Armenia, Chad, Cuba, Egypt, India, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Palestine, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, Yemen
  • Denmark: Syria
  • France: Angola, Bolivia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guinea, Haiti, India, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Nepal, Philippines, Russia (only if arriving from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey or Ukraine), Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Turkey
  • Germany: India, Jordan (except if travelling to or from Australia, Israel or New Zealand, with a valid visa for that country), Lebanon, Mali, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Turkey
  • Greece: Cameroon, Congo, Sudan, Syria
  • Italy: Senegal, Syria
  • Netherlands: Cuba, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Nepal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Yemen
  • Norway: Syria, Turkey
  • Poland: Armenia, Cuba
  • Portugal: Guinea, Senegal
  • Romania: Syria
  • Spain: Cameroon, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti (only with passports issued from 1 September 2021), India, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Palestine, Sierra Leone, Syria, Togo, Turkey, Yemen
  • Switzerland: Cuba, Syria, Turkey
  • Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden: no additional nationalities beyond common ATV list
  • Liechtenstein: no airports

Visas

Schengen visa issued by Germany

Schengen visas can be issued by any member state of the Schengen Area. Travellers must apply to the embassy or consulate of the country which they intend to visit. In cases of travellers visiting multiple countries in the Schengen Area, travellers must apply to their main destination's embassy or consulate.[97] If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should apply for the visa at the embassy of the Schengen member state of first entry.[97][98] Often, external service providers are contracted by certain diplomatic missions to process, collect and return visa applications.

Schengen visa applications may not be submitted more than six months prior to the proposed date of entry into the Schengen Area.[99] All countries' embassies may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (ten fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12.[100] Travellers applying for a Schengen visa for the first time must apply in person and are subject to an interview by the consular officers. If biometric identifiers have been provided within the past 59 months, the applicant may not be required to provide biometric identifiers again. Providing that the visa application is admissible and there are no issues with the application, a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.[101]

The standard application fee for a Schengen visa is EUR 80. There is a reduced application fee of EUR 40 for children aged 6 to 12. The visa application fee may be waived or reduced in order to 'promote cultural or sporting interests, interests in the field of foreign policy, development policy and other areas of vital public interest, or for humanitarian reasons or because of international obligations'. Where an application is submitted to an external service provider, an additional service fee may have to be paid.[102]

Schengen visas are valid for any country in the Schengen Area unless marked otherwise.[64] Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if limited to a specific country), as well as visas issued by each other, for stays of up to 90 days in a 180-day period (except for nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus).[13][14][15][16] However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.[67]

The Schengen Convention and Schengen Borders Code permit member states to require third-country nationals to report their presence to a police station within 3 working days of crossing an internal border.[103] This requirement varies by country and can usually be performed by hotels instead.

Visa facilitation agreements

The EU has concluded visa facilitation agreements with several countries, which allow facilitated procedures for issuing visas for both EU citizens and nationals of partner countries. The facilitated procedures include faster visa processing times, reduced or no fees, and reduced list of supporting documents.[104] These agreements are also linked to readmission agreements that allow the return of people irregularly residing in the EU.[105]

Visa facilitation agreements
Country Entry into force
 Albania 2008
 Armenia 2014
 Azerbaijan 2014
 Belarus 2020[106][107]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008
 Cape Verde 2014
 Georgia 2011
 Moldova 2013
 Montenegro 2008
 North Macedonia 2008
 Serbia 2008
 Russia 2007 (abandoned in 2022)[108]
 Ukraine 2013

At the border

In exceptional cases, single-entry Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days may be issued on arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for individuals who can prove that they were unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as they fulfil the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa.[109] However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, they may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person).[110] In 2017, about 89,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border.[111] People trying this way to travel to the Schengen Area can be denied boarding by the airline because of the carrier's responsibility, which penalises airlines if they carry passengers who do not have the correct documentation.

Visas with limited territorial validity

In exceptional cases, Schengen states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV), either specifically naming the state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, the state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to travel to Schengen states for which it is valid, as well as to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania.[13][14][15][16]

According to the Schengen Visa Code, member states may issue LTV visas when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months, when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Borders Code, to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.[112]

Unrecognised travel documents

Schengen visas are only issued on travel documents of UN member states, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan, Vatican City, the Order of Malta, and certain international organisations (Council of Europe, EU, NATO, Red Cross, UN).[113][114][115] Belgium and France also accept the passport of Somaliland.[116] Passports of Abkhazia, Artsakh, Donetsk PR, Luhansk PR, Northern Cyprus, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Western Sahara are not accepted.[117]

Statistics

Most Schengen visas were issued to applicants located in the countries listed below (listed if more than 100,000 visas issued in most recent year).[111][118][119][120] Applicants were not necessarily nationals of these countries.

By country of application
Applications from 2018 2017 2016 2015
Visas issued Refusal rate Share of multiple-entry visas Visas issued Refusal rate Share of multiple-entry visas Visas issued Refusal rate Share of multiple-entry visas Visas issued Refusal rate Share of multiple-entry visas
 Russia 3,631,320 1.6% 82.9% 3,826,151 1.4% 83.8% 3,134,413 1.2% 80.6% 3,415,432 1.3% 68.1%
 China 2,707,867 3.7% 33.9% 2,447,041 3.3% 33.0% 2,110,103 3.1% 33.9% 2,308,591 2.8% 18.3%
 India 974,674 9.3% 60.7% 837,109 8.5% 57.9% 724,110 8.2% 57.4% 659,038 6.5% 44.5%
 Turkey 799,903 8.5% 72.6% 903,644 6.5% 73.7% 890,776 4.4% 75.8% 862,184 3.9% 59.0%
 Belarus 676,984 0.3% 83.4% 710,504 0.3% 81.4% 693,395 0.3% 80.3% 753,937 0.3% 66.3%
 Morocco 528,639 18.0% 41.4% 513,643 15.3% 43.0% 466,516 13.1% 43.2% 426,530 12.1% 44.7%
 Algeria 384,420 45.5% 29.7% 502,706 35.9% 32.4% 507,185 27.7% 41.9% 529,658 26.9% 39.7%
 Saudi Arabia 322,004 7.6% 84.1% 307,355 5.4% 80.9% 325,600 3.5% 88.8% 351,395 2.4% 80.7%
 Thailand 319,729 3.3% 46.5% 293,401 3.1% 43.7% 268,551 3.2% 42.0% 246,025 3.4% 24.6%
 United Kingdom 266,834 1.5% 65.3% 258,424 1.4% 61.6% 245,070 2.0% 54.0% 239,201 2.6% 41.7%
 South Africa 214,491 2.4% 75.5% 200,626 2.1% 75.2% 165,880 1.7% 78.1% 183,972 1.5% 68.4%
 Indonesia 205,425 1.8% 57.1% 195,950 1.4% 56.5% 172,045 1.1% 54.0% 142,447 1.0% 50.1%
 Iran 189,030 29.4% 36.7% 207,849 19.2% 33.4% 190,429 12.5% 28.4% 158,889 13.9% 23.0%
 Tunisia 186,250 18.2% 40.9% 170,996 16.5% 42.7% 168,267 14.5% 45.3% 155,454 14.1% 40.4%
 Ukraine 182,400 4.7% 25.6% 694,349 3.7% 59.7% 1,363,347 3.2% 59.9% 1,188,357 3.4% 56.8%
 United Arab Emirates 174,059 17.9% 55.5% 167,685 16.5% 54.3% 172,822 12.1% 57.9% 192,812 12.0% 46.2%
 Kuwait 164,742 4.9% 90.3% 157,605 4.7% 86.0% 164,861 3.4% 94.1% 184,996 3.5% 80.4%
 Philippines 159,861 8.2% 62.8% 157,825 7.0% 60.6% 135,533 7.0% 55.6% 124,071 5.8% 51.9%
 United States 152,935 2.0% 46.6% 135,614 1.1% 49.4% 121,777 0.9% 51.9% 119,173 1.0% 43.4%
 Kazakhstan 149,575 4.8% 27.2% 147,458 3.7% 25.4% 121,488 2.5% 24.7% 140,964 1.9% 18.9%
 Egypt 147,340 19.9% 49.6% 136,493 17.8% 50.8% 160,035 13.4% 47.4% 153,336 11.4% 33.7%
 Lebanon 133,225 12.1% 47.1% 133,633 9.1% 51.7% 126,315 7.5% 53.2% 116,986 10.5% 48.6%
 Vietnam 113,585 9.5% 22.5% 93,357 10.4% 30.6% 71,215 9.8% 29.1% 69,041 7.6% 22.1%
Total 14,265,282 9.6% 58.4% 14,653,724 8.2% 59.2% 13,937,767 6.9% 58.6% 14,308,392 6.2% 48.5%
By issuing state
Issuing state 2018 2017 2016 2015
Applications Visas issued Refusal rate Applications Visas issued Refusal rate Applications Visas issued Refusal rate Applications Visas issued Refusal rate
 Austria 306,133 280,847 6.2% 304,556 284,904 4.7% 268,388 257,401 3.0% 259,167 247,800 3.3%
 Belgium 219,827 173,598 16.8% 231,437 184,792 16.0% 219,687 179,357 15.3% 239,500 197,495 14.0%
 Czech Republic 662,902 630,071 4.7% 623,255 594,225 4.5% 489,920 469,453 3.9% 421,355 406,598 3.1%
 Denmark 164,003 149,744 7.0% 152,467 141,353 6.3% 145,143 133,702 5.7% 123,951 115,469 5.1%
 Estonia 127,561 125,465 1.6% 138,249 136,324 1.2% 122,872 121,073 1.4% 130,197 127,543 1.7%
 Finland 769,049 751,358 1.7% 827,520 814,047 1.1% 550,046 539,127 1.5% 784,286 771,997 1.2%
 France 4,010,604 3,345,400 15.7% 3,684,404 3,161,274 13.6% 3,265,919 2,839,453 11.1% 3,356,165 2,997,410 9.9%
 Germany 2,056,296 1,838,775 9.1% 2,049,055 1,857,770 7.6% 2,004,235 1,853,655 6.1% 2,022,870 1,872,322 5.6%
 Greece 855,285 805,115 4.9% 1,029,564 981,091 3.9% 986,032 949,399 2.8% 876,786 842,276 3.2%
 Hungary 228,793 210,827 7.8% 263,940 249,393 5.3% 295,226 284,586 3.5% 290,798 282,305 2.8%
 Iceland 9,334 8,856 1.7% 7,610 7,154 1.0% 5,771 5,735 0.2% 3,987 3,960 0.3%
 Italy 1,844,140 1,703,912 7.4% 1,850,260 1,703,693 7.7% 1,806,938 1,676,207 7.0% 2,023,343 1,898,065 5.5%
 Latvia 161,709 157,628 2.1% 166,800 164,175 1.5% 165,814 163,372 1.4% 164,000 162,099 1.1%
 Lithuania 353,059 346,476 1.3% 413,966 406,872 1.2% 421,143 414,974 1.1% 423,189 419,470 1.4%
 Luxembourg 10,876 10,467 3.7% 10,004 9,618 3.7% 9,902 9,617 2.5% 10,267 10,169 1.0%
 Malta 32,331 24,931 20.4% 37,881 27,785 25.2% 27,767 21,208 21.1% 39,445 28,748 25.2%
 Netherlands 682,484 583,137 13.0% 621,431 550,910 10.1% 558,101 498,163 8.7% 520,809 474,191 7.5%
 Norway 164,591 146,526 9.5% 196,082 182,062 5.7% 188,737 177,022 4.9% 185,557 163,568 4.6%
 Poland 526,715 508,386 3.2% 823,101 789,343 3.9% 1,096,465 1,062,896 2.9% 970,907 944,821 2.6%
 Portugal 266,516 221,009 16.6% 263,502 223,243 14.9% 204,596 176,985 13.1% 192,220 168,183 12.2%
 Slovakia 26,797 25,230 4.2% 41,639 40,552 2.1% 62,472 60,834 2.2% 76,491 74,419 2.9%
 Slovenia 26,403 20,171 10.0% 29,257 23,491 8.5% 25,876 21,153 6.7% 26,895 21,940 6.8%
 Spain 1,701,379 1,502,696 9.3% 1,624,276 1,456,906 8.3% 1,583,848 1,424,761 8.1% 1,629,753 1,470,892 7.6%
 Sweden 253,292 207,643 11.7% 248,347 211,219 9.9% 227,005 193,258 9.8% 192,852 166,131 10.0%
  Switzerland 556,520 487,014 7.4% 517,010 451,528 7.2% 460,653 404,376 7.0% 481,886 429,399 6.1%
Total 16,016,599 14,265,282 9.6% 16,155,613 14,653,724 8.2% 15,192,556 13,937,767 6.9% 15,446,676 14,308,392 7.37%

Future changes

Visa exemptions

  •  Armenia – In 2018, EU and Armenian officials announced plans for visa liberalisation following the signing of a new Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement.[121]
  •  Bahrain – In 2022, the EU proposed a visa exemption for nationals of all countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which would include Bahrain.[122]
  •  Ecuador – In 2018, Spain submitted a request for visa exemption for nationals of Ecuador.[123]
  •  Indonesia – In 2015, EU and Indonesian officials started discussing possibilities for nationals of Indonesia to obtain visa-free access to the Schengen Area.[124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133]
  •  Kosovo – In 2018, an EU report concluded that Kosovo had met all of the conditions required for visa liberalisation.[134] In 2021, the EU Parliament urged the EU Council to implement the visa liberalisation for nationals of Kosovo.[135]
  •  Kuwait - In 2022, the European Commission proposed to lift visa requirements for nationals of Kuwait.[136]
  •  Nauru – In 2012, the EU proposed introducing visa-free travel for nationals of several island countries,[137] all of which concluded the required agreements by 2016 except Nauru.
  •  Oman – In 2022, the EU announced potential negotiations for a visa waiver for nationals of Oman.[138]
  •  Qatar - In 2022, the European Commission proposed to lift visa requirements for nationals of Qatar.[136]
  •  Russia – In 2014, the EU suspended talks for visa-free travel with Russia as a result of the situation in Ukraine.[139]
  •  Saudi Arabia – In 2022, Saudi and EU officials met and discussed the facilitation of visa-free entry of nationals of Saudi Arabia to the Schengen Area.[140]
  •  Turkey – In 2016, the EU presented a legislative proposal to include Turkey in the list of countries whose nationals are exempt from visas for short stays in the Schengen Area.[141]
  •  Vanuatu – A visa waiver agreement between the EU and Vanuatu was suspended on 4 May 2022 and set to resume on 3 February 2023.[142]

Entry/Exit System

In 2017, the EU adopted a regulation to establish an Entry/Exit System (EES) to record electronically the entry and exit of third-country nationals to and from the Schengen Area in a central database, replacing the manual stamping of passports. The goals are to increase automation of border control and to identify overstayers.[143][144] As of March 2020, EES is expected to enter into operation in the first quarter of 2022.[145][146]

The EU also plans to establish a Registered Traveller Programme that would allow pre-screened travellers easier access.[147]

ETIAS

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS) authorises visa-exempt visitors to enter the European Union or the wider Schengen Area, which includes EFTA countries.[148]

Ireland, although an EU member, still participates in the Common Travel Area with the United Kingdom and British Islands and will not initially participate in ETIAS, but might join in the future.[149]

It is anticipated that the start date for ETIAS visa waivers will be the end of 2022, but ETIAS will not be mandatory until 2023.[146][150][151] A 6-month grace period is planned to allow eligible travellers to become familiarized with the new regulations.[152] Prospective visitors will need to complete an online application and a €7 fee must be paid by those aged 18 to 70.[153] ETIAS is expected to process the vast majority of applications automatically by searching in electronic databases and then provide an immediate response but, in some limited cases, it may take up to 30 days.

Reciprocity

Visa requirements for European Union citizens
  European Single Market (freedom of movement)
  Visa-free access for all EU citizens
  Visa-free access for some EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for all EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for some EU citizens
  Electronic visa application

The EU requires that all Annex II countries and territories provide visa-free access for 90 days to nationals of all Schengen states and other EU countries implementing the common visa rules (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, but not Ireland). If an Annex II country is found to not provide full reciprocity, the EU may decide to suspend the visa exemption for certain categories or later all nationals of that country.[12]

Since the adoption of this policy, full reciprocity has been achieved with all Annex II countries except the United States, which, as of September 2021,[update] requires visas from nationals of Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania.[154] In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visa requirements for its nationals.[155] Since the United States failed to lift the requirements, on 3 March 2017 the European Parliament approved a non-binding resolution calling on the European Commission to revoke the visa-free travel for US nationals to the Schengen Area.[156]

Some Annex II countries and territories also impose minor restrictions on nationals of EU or Schengen states that are not considered a breach of reciprocity by the EU. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States require an electronic authorisation before travel by air or sea, similar to the EU's own planned ETIAS. Canada also requires a visa from nationals of Romania not holding electronic passports.[157] Israel requires a visa from nationals of Germany born before 1928, which is issued free of charge if they were not involved with the Nazi Party.[158][159][160] Montserrat requires an electronic visa from nationals of Croatia.[161] The United States also requires a visa from nationals of Hungary born outside Hungary.[162][163]

Stays exceeding 90 days

In general, third-country nationals staying more than 90 days in the Schengen Area as a whole or in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania require either a long-stay visa for less than a year or a residence permit for longer periods.

Although long-stay visas issued by these countries have a uniform design, the procedures and conditions for issuing them are usually determined by each individual country. For example, some Schengen countries require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, while other Schengen countries permit them after arrival. Some procedures may vary depending on the applicant's country as well.[164][165][166][167] In some situations, such as for study, the procedures and conditions for long-stay visas have been harmonised among all issuing states.[168][169] Each country is also free to establish its own conditions for residence permits.

Third-country nationals who are long-term residents of an EU or Schengen state (except Ireland and Denmark) may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another of these states without losing their legal status and social benefits.[170] The Van Der Elst visa rule allows third-country nationals employed in the EU single market to work temporarily in another EU single market country for the same employer under certain conditions.

Some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require nationals of the European microstates to apply for a long-stay visa.[171] Nationals of countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) that had entered into visa waiver agreements with individual Schengen states before they implemented the Schengen agreement are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of those Schengen states without a long-stay visa (see the 'Rules for Annex II nationals' section above).

Means of subsistence

In addition to general requirements, Schengen states also set entry conditions for foreign nationals of countries outside the EU single market called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.[172][173]

Means of subsistence requirements
Country Reference amount
Belgium €45 per day for aliens staying with a private individual; €95 per day for aliens staying at a hotel.
Bulgaria €50 per day; minimum €500 per stay[174]
Croatia €100 per day; but €50 for aliens possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangements, etc.
Czech Republic €40 per day up to 30 days[175]
Denmark DKK350 per day
Estonia €78 per day or a letter of invitation
Finland €30 per day[176]
France €120 per day if holding no proof of accommodation; €65 per day if staying at a hotel; €32.50 per day if holding proof of accommodation.[177]
Germany €45 per day in the form of cash, credit cards and cheques but alternatively a letter of guarantee from the host.[178]
Greece €50 per day; minimum total amount of €300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors[179]
Hungary HUF1000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.[180]
Iceland ISK4,000 per day + ISK20,000 per each entry
Italy €269.60 fixed sum for stays up to 5 days (€212.81 per person for groups of two and more); 6–10 days: €44.93 per day (€26.33); 11–20 days: €51.64 fixed sum + €36.67 per day (€25.82 + €22.21); 20+ days €206.58 fixed sum + €27.89 per day (€118.79 + €17.04).
Latvia €14 per day or certified invitation letter
Liechtenstein CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students
Lithuania €40 per day
Malta €48 per day
Netherlands €34 per day
Norway NOK500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)
Poland PLN300 for stay not exceeding 3 days; PLN100 per day by stay exceeding 3 days; PLN20 per day if cost of the stay were paid.[181]
Portugal €40 per day + €75 per entry
Romania €50 per day; minimum €500 per stay
Slovakia €56 per day (€30 for accommodation, €4 for breakfast, €7.5 for lunch, €7.5 for dinner, €7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter[182]
Slovenia €70; €35 for minors accompanied by parents[183]
Spain €855.00 minimum amount (for stays of up to 9 days); €95.00 per day in excess of 9 days.[184][185]
Sweden SEK450 per day. Needed proof is a copy of three months of bank statements, or of two years of income tax declaration, if there is no official sponsor with proof of that.[186]
Switzerland CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students
Authorities of Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg decide on a case-by-case basis.

The Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[187] Romania requires visitors from Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[188]

Visa policies of Ireland and overseas territories

Ireland has an independent visa policy. It grants visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, East Timor, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Palau, Peru, Serbia and Venezuela. It also grants visa-free entry to several additional countries – Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Eswatini, Fiji, Guyana, Lesotho, Maldives, Nauru and South Africa. Visas for Ireland and for the Schengen Area are not valid for each other. Ireland is part of the Common Travel Area and maintains freedom of movement with the United Kingdom in addition to with EU and Schengen countries.[189]

The British overseas territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia has open borders with Cyprus and follows the visa policy of the Schengen Area, but requires permits for stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period.[190][191] These rules were not affected by Brexit.[192]

Overseas France and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands have individual visa policies that are mostly aligned with the Schengen Area, with some exceptions and additions.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland have the same list of nationalities exempt from visas as the Schengen Area, and arrivals from the Schengen Area are not subject to border checks. However, Schengen visas are not valid there, so nationalities that are not exempt need separate visas for these territories. These regulations are due to a special agreement under the Nordic Passport Union.[193][194]

Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone. Travellers to and from Svalbard must present a passport or national ID card.[195] Travellers who need a visa for the Schengen Area must have such visa if they travel to Svalbard via mainland Norway, and this must be a double-entry visa if they also return from Svalbard via mainland Norway.[196]

Visa policies of candidate and applicant states

Countries applying to join the European Union are obliged to adopt the EU's visa policy no later than three months before they formally join the Union.[197] Schengen countries give visa-free access to nationals of all EU candidate and applicant states except Turkey.[198] Candidate states Albania, Moldova, Montenegro and North Macedonia, and applicant state Bosnia and Herzegovina maintain similar visa policies as the Schengen Area, with some notable exceptions regarding countries that were added to the Schengen Annex II more recently and additional nationalities not listed in Annex II. Candidate states Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine, and applicant state Georgia require visas from some nationalities that have always been in Annex II and also maintain visa exemptions for some additional nationalities not in Annex II. Turkey also requires visas from nationals of EU member state Cyprus.

Validity for other countries

Schengen visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in several other countries.

Validity of Schengen visas for other countries
  •  Albania – 90 days; must hold a multiple entry C visa or D visa used to enter the Schengen Area at least once.
  •  Andorra – should hold a multiple entry visa, relaxed checks.
  •  Antigua and Barbuda – 30 days; US$100 visa waiver fee applies.
  •  Argentina – certain nationalities can obtain an electronic travel authorization for 90 days if holding a valid Schengen visa.
  •  Belarus – 5 days; for nationals of Gambia, Haiti, Honduras, India, Lebanon, Namibia, Samoa and Vietnam only.
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina – 30 days; must hold a multiple entry visa.[199]
  •  Bulgaria – 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Colombia – 90 days; for nationals of Cambodia, China, India, Macau (180 days), Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam only. Schengen visa must be valid for 180 days at the time of entry to Colombia.[200]
  •  Croatia – 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Cyprus – 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Dominican Republic – 90 days;
  •  El Salvador – 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Georgia – 90 days within any 180-day period;
  •  Gibraltar – 21 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Guatemala – 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Honduras – 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Jamaica – 30 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Mexico – 180 days;[201]
  •  Moldova – 90 days within any 180-day period; applicable to nationals of China, Kuwait, and Qatar only.
  •  Montenegro – 30 days;
  •  Nicaragua – 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  North Macedonia – 15 days; must hold a C visa valid for at least 5 days beyond the period of stay and must be valid for re-entry to any of the Schengen Area member states.
  •  Oman – certain nationalities can obtain an electronic Omani visa if holding a valid Schengen visa.
  •  Philippines – 7 days for nationals of China; 14 days for nationals of India.
  •  Qatar – Non-visa-free nationals can obtain an electronic travel authorization for 30 days if holding a valid Schengen visa.
  •  Romania – 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe – 15 days;
  •  Serbia – 90 days;
  •  Turkey – certain nationalities can obtain an electronic Turkish visa if holding a valid Schengen visa.

See also

  • flagEuropean Union portal
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Europe.

Notes

  1. ^ a b A visa waiver agreement with Vanuatu came into force on 28 May 2015, but was suspended from 4 May 2022 for holders of passports of Vanuatu issued from 25 May 2015.[18] Although the visa waiver could still apply to passports issued before that date, such passports had a validity of five years so they already expired.[19][20][21]
  2. ^ Including all classes of British nationality.
  3. ^ British citizens (except those connected only to the Crown dependencies), British subjects with right of abode in the United Kingdom, and British Overseas Territories citizens of Gibraltar.

References

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  3. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 29 April 2004. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  4. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2 May 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
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  10. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
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  123. ^ "Spain presents the request for the Schengen visa exemption for Ecuadorian citizens to the European Union". Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  124. ^ "Indonesian government proposes free Schengen visa".
  125. ^ "France to support RI's Schengen visa-free proposal". The Jakarta Post.
  126. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Kalla meets Luxembourg PM, Dutch Queen".
  127. ^ "Indonesia, Finland to explore renewable energy cooperation".
  128. ^ Saleh, Yudhistira Amran. "Hongaria Dukung Indonesia Dapatkan Bebas Visa Schengen".
  129. ^ "Dubes Harapkan Jokowi Kunjungi Swiss – Waspada Online". 26 November 2015.
  130. ^ "Indonesia usul bebas Visa Schengen untuk WNI - ANTARA News". 5 November 2015.
  131. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia proposes Schengen visa waiver".
  132. ^ VIVA.co.id, PT. VIVA MEDIA BARU -. "Indonesia Klaim Direstui UE Dapat Bebas Visa Schengen".
  133. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "RI visa waiver on the cards, says envoy".
  134. ^ "Visa Liberalisation: Commission confirms Kosovo fulfils all required benchmarks". European Commission. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  135. ^ Enlargement reports: MEPs fully support Western Balkans' European future, European Parliament, 25 March 2021.
  136. ^ a b Commission proposes visa-free travel to the EU for Qatar and Kuwait nationals, European Commission, 27 April 2022.
  137. ^ "European Union opens doors to 16 island nations". The Times of India.
  138. ^ Oman enters Schengen Visa waiver negotiations: EU official, Times of Oman, 7 June 2022.
  139. ^ "EU suspends talks on visa-free travel with Russia and threatens further sanctions". Euronews. 5 March 2014.
  140. ^ Saudi Arabia Seeks to Facilitate Citizens' Visa-Free Entry to Schengen Countries, Asharq Al-Awsat, 27 June 2022.
  141. ^ "European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey". European Commission. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  142. ^ Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/693 of 27 April 2022 on the temporary suspension of the visa exemption for nationals of Vanuatu, EUR-Lex.
  143. ^ Regulation (EU) 2017/2226 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2017, EUR-Lex.
  144. ^ Enhanced Security with the Entry/Exit System, EU-LISA.
  145. ^ "Smart Borders". European Commission. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  146. ^ a b EU information systems, European Commission, February 2019.
  147. ^ Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Registered Traveller Programme, European Commission, 2013.
  148. ^ "Security union: A European Travel Information and Authorisation System - Questions & answers". European Commission. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  149. ^ "Will you need a visa to visit Ireland in 2021?". IrishCentral. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  150. ^ Security union: A European Travel Information and Authorisation System - Questions & answers, European Commission, 5 July 2018.
  151. ^ ETIAS Registration Will Not Become Mandatory Until the End of 2022, ETIAS Visa, March 2020.
  152. ^ When Will ETIAS Be Implemented: Start Date and More
  153. ^ "ETIAS, what it means for travellers; what it means for Frontex". Frontex. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  154. ^ State of play and way forward as regards the situation of non-reciprocity in the area of visa policy, European Commission, 19 December 2018.
  155. ^ "Bulgaria Will Not Sign TTIP Unless US Lifts Visa Requirements - Minister - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency".
  156. ^ Sharman, Jon (3 March 2016). "European Parliament votes to end visa-free travel for Americans". The Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  157. ^ "Citizens of Romania now need a valid electronic passport for visa-free travel to Canada". Government of Canada. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  158. ^ Consular services, Israeli Embassy in Germany.
  159. ^ German nationals who were born before 1928, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
  160. ^ Statement, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
  161. ^ Countries requiring a visa, Government of Montserrat.
  162. ^ Information on conditions of entry and stay in the United States, Consular Services of Hungary (in Hungarian).
  163. ^ Hungarian citizens abroad can no longer travel to the United States without a visa, Krónika Online, January 20, 2022 (in Hungarian).
  164. ^ "Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany".
  165. ^ "Consulate-General of the Republic of Hungary in New Zealand: General information for entering Hungary, a member of the Schengen Area".
  166. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse (2 August 2016). "Visas - Topic - Government.nl".
  167. ^ "Federal Office of Migration: List 1: Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality (version of 4 December 2011)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  168. ^ Council Directive 2004/114/EC of 13 December 2004 on the conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service (L 375/12, 23 December 2004)
  169. ^ Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of Directive 2004/114/EC
  170. ^ Council Directive 2003/109/EC concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents (OJ L 16, 23 January 2004, p.44).
  171. ^ "Accueil Particuliers - service-public.fr". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  172. ^ "Annex 25 – Reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" (PDF).
  173. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  174. ^ Article 19(5) of the Ordinance on the terms and the procedure for the issuing of visas, adopted by Council of Ministers Decree No 97/11.05.2002
  175. ^ Act No 326/1999 Sb. on Residence of Aliens in the Territory of the Czech Republic and Amendments of Some Acts
  176. ^ Aliens' Act (301/2004, paragraph 11)
  177. ^ Minimum wage equivalent.
  178. ^ Article 15(2) of the Residence Act of 30 July 2004
  179. ^ Common Ministerial Decision No 3021/22/10- f of 24 December 2007
  180. ^ Decree No 25/2001. (XI. 21.) of the Minister of Interior
  181. ^ Regulation of the Minister for Internal Affairs and Administration of 22 December 2008 on the means of subsistence that an alien entering the territory of the Republic of Poland should possess and on the documentation confirming the ability to access such means (Journal of Laws 2008, No 235, item 1611)
  182. ^ Article 4 of the Act No 48/2002 Coll. on Stay of Aliens and on amendment of certain acts as amended
  183. ^ Instructions on refusing entry to aliens, conditions for issuing visas at border crossings, conditions for issuing visas for humanitarian reasons and procedure for revoking visas (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 2/01)
  184. ^ Order of the Ministry of the Presidency (PRE/1282/2007)
  185. ^ "Entrada: requisitos y condiciones". Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  186. ^ "TOURIST VISA CHECKLIST" (PDF). Embassy of Sweden. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  187. ^ "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Gulf Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  188. ^ "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Gulf Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  189. ^ Residence rights of UK citizens, Citizensinformation.ie, 9 April 2021.
  190. ^ Protocols No. 3 and 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, EUR-Lex, 23 September 2003.
  191. ^ Control (entry, settlement and commercial enterprises) ordinance 1960, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Gazette, consolidated version as of 8 October 2020.
  192. ^ Protocol relating to the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus, Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, EUR-Lex, 12 November 2019.
  193. ^ Visa and Work Permits, Government of the Faroe Islands.
  194. ^ Schengen and Tourists, Government of Greenland.
  195. ^ "How to travel to Svalbard". Visit Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  196. ^ "Visas and immigration". Governor of Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  197. ^ "Russians, Ukrainians, Turks need visa for Croatia".
  198. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Visa free travel for citizens of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia before Christmas".
  199. ^ "Visas for Bosnia and Herzegovina".
  200. ^ "PAISES A LOS CUALES COLOMBIA EXIGE VISA" (PDF).
  201. ^ Países y regiones que No requieren visa para viajar a México

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1 British Overseas Territories. 2 Open border with Schengen Area. 3 Russia is included as a European country here because the majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia. 4 These countries span the conventional boundary between Europe and Asia. 5 Part of the Realm of New Zealand. 6 Partially recognized. 7 Unincorporated territory of the United States. 8 Part of Norway, not part of the Schengen Area, special open-border status under Svalbard Treaty. 9 Part of the Kingdom of Denmark, not part of the Schengen Area. 10 Egypt spans the boundary between North Africa and the Middle East.

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1 British Overseas Territories. 2 Part of the Schengen Area. 3 Open border with Schengen Area. 4 Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Kazakhstan and the partially recognised republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia each span the conventional boundary between Europe and Asia. 5 Cyprus, Armenia, and the partially recognised republics of Artsakh and Northern Cyprus are entirely in Southwest Asia but have socio-political connections with Europe. 6 Egypt spans the boundary between North Africa and the Middle East. 7 Partially recognized. 8 Part of the Kingdom of Denmark, not part of the Schengen Area. 9 Russia has territory in both Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia. 10 Part of the Nordic Passport Union.

Immigration law